Evidence on the Powers the Constitution Leaves Exclusively to the States

The Constitution enumerates the powers of the federal government. But has anyone listed the exclusive powers of states—the realm the federal government may not invade without violating the Constitution? When discussing state authority, the Founders usually pointed out only that the federal government’s powers were, as Madison said, “few and defined,” and that the states…

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A Check on Federal Power: “Superior to All Parchment Checks that can be Invented”

While James Madison wrote the most specific and complete set of instructions on how to stop the federal government without going to the federal government, he was far from the only founder to talk about states as a check on federal power. A little-known Founder from Massachusetts made the case, just like James Madison did,…

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