While some people believe the best response to current federal immigration policies lies in a strategy based on lawsuits and winning in the next two election cycles, a potentially more effective one is already happening right now.

Writing in support of the proposed Constitution, James Madison offered some strategic advice in a paper known as Federalist #46. Here, the “Father of the Constitution” countered claims that federal power couldn’t be stopped if it acted against the interests or liberty of the people.

Madison made the case that if individuals and states took four steps in large enough numbers, they could create an environment where federal enforcement would be political or practically impossible.

Today, we’re seeing all four steps put into practice before our very eyes in response to federal immigration enforcement measures.

“Disquietude of the people”  

Madison expected the people to throw a fit when the federal government usurped power, violated rights, and even when it just took actions that were extremely unpopular.

The outrage against a “zero-tolerance policy” that resulted in more than 2,300 children seperated from parents being detained for violations of federal immigration law has reached a fevered pitch. Some of the president’s staunchest defenders question or oppose the policy.

But the “disquietude” hasn’t been limited to public statements or angry posts on social networks. Activists showed up to protest Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities in Boston, Battle Creek Michigan, Tucson, San Diego, San Francisco, southwest Texas, and elsewhere. A large rally is also planned for